The Global Marketplace and Pharmaceuticals

The US is a gateway for pharmaceuticals from just about anywhere on the globe. Though this presents an opportunity for a diversity of options, it also presents a staggering challenge for security forces to protect us against related vulnerabilities. Due to the complexity of the global pharmaceutical supply chain, it is more important than ever to secure the integrity of our domestic drug supply.

We attempt to embrace the promise of this increasingly global economy while protecting the health and safety of American consumers. According to the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, India and China are known to have less robust pharmaceutical regulations than the US, yet they play a major role in providing the US with 80% of the active ingredients used in US-made drug products. In fact, there are more than 150 countries that are involved in supplying active ingredients to the US. In addition, a full 40% of the finished drug products which stock our medicine cabinets come from abroad, and it is projected that this trend will increase into the future.

The real reason for concern is demonstrated in the tragic deaths of 150 patients in 2007 that were linked to the use of contaminated Heparin. It is essential to hold foreign drug distributors to the same standards as American distributors in order to level the playing field and better protect consumers.

Securing the pharmaceutical supply chain was the focus of a hearing which was held September 14, 2011 by the United States Senate Committee on Health Education Labor and Pensions. It was noted that with the increase in supply chain complexity, "authorities have not kept pace with the challenges of the current global marketplace" and that "these factors create great challenges to FDA and industry in ensuring that all drugs are high quality and travel safely throughout their complex supply chains."

It is obvious that greater security and safety measures are needed to help to ensure the integrity and quality of drugs entering the US. For more in-depth information, video clips of the September 14th hearing and links to full witness testimony are available on the Senate committee's website.

While the USA Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions is working on a solution, one of the ways in which we can safeguard our families and ourselves is by using online resources that helps protect American consumers when buying medicine online.

John Horton [] is President and Founder of LegitScript, and a former aide in the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). After five years working for the "Drug Czar," John Horton founded LegitScript [] with the intent of helping people be sure that they are buying safe and genuine prescription medication on the Internet. LegitScript, is an internet enforcement service group, that has been successfully investigating sites to determine whether or not such sites are in compliance with the law and accepted standards of medical and pharmacy practice ethics.

The Diversity of Tinnitus Treatment Programs

Unfortunately there is no comprehensive strategy to look at the merits and demerits of tinnitus treatment. Most of the evidence is anecdotal and localized. This article provides a quiet look at the possible solutions.

The problem of statistical reliability remains prevalent when assessing the effectiveness of tinnitus treatment programs. The objective variety of the condition can be treated using Gamma knife radio-surgery or glomus jugulare. Alternatively you may use cochlea shielding techniques that are achieved through a Teflon implant. A palatal tremor can be triggered using a Botulinum toxin injection. By contrast some patients have found relief from clearing the ear canal. An earwax plug is particularly effective in these circumstances. Studies of a neurostimulator have also been effective.

Finding a solution to subjective tinnitus

When it comes to the subjective variety patients are given a combination of drugs and nutrients. A Lidocaine injection was suggested after a Swedish study. Its suppressive qualities lasted for the best part of 20 minutes. If the patient is unable to undertake repeated medication then it is possible to administer some older benzodiazepines such as diazepam. One of the issues with this tinnitus treatment is related to the long-term risks of side effects.

Small doses of Tricyclics such as nortriptyline and Amitriptyline have been found to be effective. Patients are advised to reduce their intake of nicotine and caffeine. Moreover the symptoms tend to go down when the salt intake is regulated. Nevertheless it must be noted that the condition can arise after smoking cessation. The consumption of alcohol increased the severity and frequency of the condition. Where a serum zinc deficiency has been established, supplementation can help to arrest tinnitus.

Experiments have been undertaken to confirm the efficacy of Acamprosate programs. Otosclerosis can be controlled through the use of sodium fluoride Etidronate. Patients who are responsive to white noise masking may benefit from anticonvulsants such as Lignocaine. The use of Carbamazepine and Melatonin has been associated with peaceful sleep. A series of vitamin combinations such as lipoflavonoid can work very well with Sertraline in order to improve the quality of life that the patient leads.

The merits of electrical simulation

Some of the medical studies have recommended the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation using direct current. Alternatively patients may benefit from transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The auditory cortex responds to electrodes. These techniques were used by Berthold Langguth in his patients. Consequently there was a significant reduction in the tinnitus symptoms.

More details for Tinnitus Treatment can be obtained from various websites available online.

Pharmaceutical Refrigeration

When storing certain pharmaceutical products you need to make sure that strict temperature control is in place. For example vaccines, some medicines and blood samples often need to be stored at specific temperatures.

Therefore you need quality cold storage equipment that will not compromise the constituents and quality of these items. There are refrigeration units and freezers available containing independent compartments and adjustable shelves for use in laboratories, pharmacies and other medical storage sites.

Pharmaceutical cold stores come in a range of sizes. Smaller solutions include mini mobile cold stores, that can be transported easily from place to place. Other examples are 10ft units with full redundancy on critical features and 7 pallet capacity 20ft units with independent refrigeration systems and dual electronic temperature recorders.

40ft and 45ft pharmaceutical cold stores are of larger capacity and hold 16 or18 pallets of product. These weatherproof units can be situated outside as well as inside, in order to save space. They also have a specialised control panel operating the rotation of two fully independent refrigeration systems.

If you have very large quantities of pharmaceutical inventory to store, then mega mobile cold stores or walk in colds stores are the answer. These store up to 38 standard size pallets and are 16ft wide units for high-level product storage and stock turnaround.

These walk in units have 4 independent refrigeration units. The modular design means they can be adapted to suit your needs in terms of size and location. This is a great walk-in unit for stock picking, as it offers a lot of space and adaptability.

Special pharmaceutical doors can guarantee hygiene and insulation on cold storage units. Remote temperature monitoring can also ensure you keep a close eye on the temperature of your unit.

Temperature controlled storage can be purchased or leased from specialist companies. This means you have the choice of either renting or owning a units, depending on how long you will need it for and whether you will need to upgrade.

Suppliers of pharmaceutical cold storage units commonly offer maintenance and call out service so that you can be confident that your on site temperature controlled equipment will remain in full functioning order throughout the years.

Contingency cold storage is also available if you cannot store pharmaceutical products on site. You can rent out pallet spaces in temperature controlled cold stores that are carefully monitored off site by specialist companies.

CRS Cold Storage offer a comprehensive range of cold storage equipment. They have a variety of pharmaceutical cold stores in a choice of sizes available to rent or buy. They also offer outsourced contingency cold storage for those who want to rent cold storage space for their pharmaceutical items. Visit

The Different Types of Emergency Medicine Jobs

From emergency room call centers to actual surgeons who save lives every day, emergency medicine jobs are very important. In fact, the people who work in this particular field are considered to be some of the bravest people out there because they work long hours in order to make a huge difference in other people's lives.

If you are interested in looking into emergency medical jobs yourself, then some of the first responder jobs you can look into would include firefighters, EMTs and paramedics. All of these jobs would involve interacting with the general public at the start of a potential medical situation and would entail determining whether patients have to go further into the process, as well.

In case somebody needs to head to the hospital, another emergency medicine job that would come into the picture would be medical transport. Life flight helicopter pilots and ambulance drivers play a huge role in getting patients to the required facilities on time, so that they can be helped as soon as possible.

Other emergency medicine jobs would include neo-natal nurses, emergency room doctors, radiologists, pediatric surgeons, RNs and general surgeons. All of these jobs are fast-paced ones, though, and play the biggest roles in helping people on a daily basis. Some of these jobs specialize in one particular field, such as pediatrics, while others help in every area within the hospital. The latter would require learning a lot of different aspects within the field, though.

Without a doubt, joining the medical industry is a very rewarding thing to do and choosing the right job in the industry can be fun. However, you need to focus on finding out your strengths and your passions before you can become a part of this whole adventure - remember that.

Fortunately, the education available in today's day and age for these particular jobs is outstanding and extensive. There are also a lot of extra courses that people can take to expand their knowledge based on their particular medical position if they want, so the chances of moving up with a medical career have become practically endless.

So, once you have decided which emergency medicine jobs you are interested in, all you have to do is apply the skills that you have learned thus far and get the proper training. Either way, though, as long as you never lose sight of your goals, you are sure to succeed. Good luck!

Visit to know more about emergency medicine jobs

Narcolepsy Treatments - Discover The Best Treatment For Narcolepsy

Until now effective narcolepsy treatments have been few and far between. Now there is a new treatment for narcolepsy which is proving very successful.

As you may or may not know, up until now there have not been many very successful treatments for narcolepsy. The only narcolepsy treatment that has proven relatively successful are medicated doses of dexamphetamine.

Narcolepsy Treatments With Dexamphetamine

Until a few years ago the preferred and practically the only treatment for narcolepsy has been with daily doses of dexamphetamine. Dexamphetamine is a stimulant that forces the body to be awake by exciting dopamine receptors.

The problem with this treatment is that dexamphetamine is:

1) Highly addictive

2) Creates euphoria and a 'high'

3) Builds tolerance quickly.

As such, narcoleptic users find themselves nedding higher and higher doses to receive the same stimulating effects and keep themselves awake.

Narcolepsy Treatments Turned Ugly - Be Warned

Another terrible side effect of this narcoleptic treatment is that because the brain's reward system is hooked up with dopamine, and narcoleptics hammer this everyday with dexamphetamine, they find themselves unable to genuinely enjoy life or receive real positive feelings of accomplishment...


Because dexamphetamine actually overexcites and kills the neurons the condition lasts forever. This is compounded by the fact that daily, long term use of dexamphetamine is required as the treatment for narcoleptics.

The Narcoleptic Ultimatum

For this reason, until now, narcoleptics have had a pretty grim ultimatum:

- Either you spend your whole life being tired and falling asleep at every turn, or

- You stay awake and enjoy your life for a while, but then have your brain burnt out and never be able to enjoy anything ever again!

And this is a truly difficult decision to make.

Brand New Narcoleptic Treatments Discovered

Now there is a new narcoleptic treatment gaining momentum in the medical field. A new drug called modafinil was discovered a few years ago and it is now on the market as a treatment for narcolepsy.

The drug works in a different way to dexamphetamine. Instead of 'exciting the stimulating parts of the brain' instead it simple 'turns off the sleepy part of the brain'. That's about the simplest way to explain it without going into details.

Modafinil As A Treatment For Narcolepsy

Currently modafinil is the superior narcolepsy treatment for many reasons:

- it's non-addictive

- it doesn't create euphoria or a 'high'

- it has a long half life of 12-15 hours (this means you just have to take one dose in the morning)

- it doesn't 'burn the brain out' and users can discontinue and feel normal immediately

- it's cheap because lower doses are needed less often

- there is no opportunity for abuse potential (unlike dexamphetamine which has a massive abuse potential)

So as you can see, it's light-years ahead of any other narcoleptic treatment.

Narcolepsy Treatments - The Best Of The Best

Modafinil is the best of the best when it comes to narcolepsy treatments.

Modafinil is sold under different brand names depending on what country you live in. It is known as Provigil in the USA, and UK, as Alertec in Canada and Modavigil in Australia. There are many more names of it in different countries, too many to list here.

Do you want to learn how to buy this narcolepsy treatment online safely?

If yes, head on over to and read the guide to safely and securely purchasing narcolepsy treatments online.

Pharmacology for Nurses

In most cases, a licensed nurse is not entitled to prescribe medication. Nurses may treat patients and carry out some medical procedures under the assistance or guidance of a doctor and also give drug dosages prescribed by doctors. Pharmacology courses gives the nurses additional information and training on dosing and drugs. The courses could be unavailable for nurses.

A course in nursing pharmacology gives a nurse an additional training in the area of pharmacology. The courses are called pharmacology for nurses or basic pharmacology. Depending on the desire, the training courses can be undertaken while you study for a nursing degree, be it a bachelor's or an associate's degree.

For additional training, they can be undertaken separately especially for nurses who intend to advance career wise. To be taken separately, the courses are offered to nurses who are already registered and licensed and have already graduated from a nursing school and want to use the learnt information to refresh their minds and be up to date with the current development in the field.

Courses for pharmacology may be taken online or in person. In return one is offered a certification on completion of the course or one is provided with a proof of attendance and successful completion. When undertaken as part of nursing school education, you must pass the course for you to graduate.

Information taught as pharmacology for nurses is not as deep as the one for pharmacists or doctors since nurses primarily focus on administering drugs, not determining the drugs a patient should take. Therefore nurses need to have an understanding on pharmacology and the impact of drugs in their various forms on patient's bodies. Many hospitals look for nurses with a pharmacology training or degree for hire. Hence nurses will advance quickly career wise if they attend training courses and obtain education in this field.

It is the duty of the nurses to keep track of the administered drugs. The tasks need to be done with expertise because a small mistake can be detrimental to victims. Therefore nurses must have solid understanding on drugs so that the nurse can perform the job proficiently.

Through pharmacology classes, nurses will understand how drugs act in a human system and on how medication is classified. Many subjects are touched in these training including different physiological systems and the effect of drugs on them. In addition, there is an emphasis on terminology and vocabulary of medications.

Pharmacology for nurses entails a lot of information being absorbed. A nurse with this course is able to understand the internal and external effect of medications and can recognize symptoms of adverse effects or an overdose. During training, students are expected to adhere to standards regarding attendance and grades strictly as outlined in the syllabus.

BLS confirms that a registered nurse who has a bachelor's degree or higher are expected to have a better job prospect unlike those without. Again, according to BLS, employment for registered nurses is expected to grow by 22% by 2018.

Find out more about how to master pharmacology for nurses and if you liked it then learn the best way to understand pharmacology courses.

Uses of Doppler Machines

Doppler machines are a painless and comfortable diagnostic procedure that is performed by sonographers and doctors to how images of movement of blood or other fluids inside the body. These machines are particularly helpful in diagnosing blood clotting, restricted flow, reverse flow, and the deep vein thrombosis. The Doppler machine is placed on the body part being examined and uses high frequency sound waves to transmit sound pulses into the body by use of probe. The sound pulses are reflected back by any kind of object or obstruction and an image is obtained. The procedure can last up to an hour.

These devises are very helpful in a number of diagnostics, such as the abnormalities in the blood vessels, Abnormalities of heart valves, diastolic heart failure, valve stenosis, peripheral arterial diseases, detecting the abnormalities in the fetus.

There are various kinds of these wonderful machines depending upon the area to be examined.
The Transcranial ultrasound is used for scanning the brain and measuring the speed of blood flow through the vessels. It is useful in diagnosing the hemorrhages and embolisms. Doppler ultrasound uses sound waves to see how blood flows through a blood vessel. It helps in diagnosing how blood flows through major arteries of hands, legs, arms. It can also detect blocked or reduced blood flow through narrowing in the major arteries of the neck that would cause a stroke. It can also detect blood clots in the leg veins. During pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound is used to check blood flow in the fetus.

The carotid Doppler machine measures the blood flow velocity within the cervical carotid arteries, as well as vertebral arteries.These machines are also used by obstetricians to monitor the development of the fetus inside the mother. Since they have high frequency probes for purpose of imaging arteries and veins, and are equipped with color Doppler, they offer a great detailed report. Nowadays fetal Doppler machines are also available in the markets. The fetal version of the machine are safer than the ultrasound machines because the waves generated by them are weaker than those given by an ultrasound machine. Fetal Doppler machines monitor the heartbeat of the fetus, and safer to be used in homes.

The use of Doppler machines is a boon to the medical science. Almost all hospitals have Doppler machines and ultrasound machines working on the same principle, which help in detecting the abnormalities inside the body.

Matt @ Doppler Machines

The Role of Pathology Within Medicine

The initial detection and identification of the most common up to the deadliest cancers that affects the human body can be accredited to one distinctive study-Pathology. Pathology is a study that deals with the diagnosis of the nature of diseases. As a crucial part of medical science, it investigates the essential nature of a particular disease and monitors the development of abnormal conditions as well as the over-all functional changes that outcomes from the disease progression. When a person visits a physician because of a certain tumor that appeared in the most unflattering part of the body, the physician will have to endorse laboratory tests first. Pathology is responsible with the extensive diagnosis in the laboratory process, it sets the final standard if the tumor is cancerous or not. It also provides what type of cancer and its classification. While this is the common but crucial function of pathology, there is a more integral fact that should be attributed to its existence.

Statistics shows that between 70-90 percent of all medical decisions from hospital admissions to discharge, have involve some sort of pathology investigations. It invests to multiple medical and laboratory testing to detect diseases in its earlier phases. Therefore, this is also one of the most important roles for pathology in the world of medicine- the ability to diagnose any disease even before symptoms appear. There is wide range of examination practiced by pathologist to evaluate results. They use human tissue, blood, and other body fluids to track the origin of a particular disease. It determines what could be the best and appropriate treatment. It has been identified that through pathology, numerous surgical treatments could have been prevented. Since then, role of pathology in medicine have emerged in a more advance stage. Through the precise studies of this field, improvements to major operations were made.

Pathology has truly built their vital role in medicine. To further illustrate this, for the past years, there were millions of people suffering from different types of cancer. Records show that as pathology improves, there has been a noticeable change. There are now a good number of survivors living and enjoying their normal lifestyle because of the advancement in diagnosis, developed surgical procedures, and varieties of treatments. This marks the beginning of a new era. Continued research in this field will deliver more effective and innovative cures for diseases around the world. Prevention will have greater impact than treatments.

Drug Detoxification - An Introduction

Drug detoxification is a group of therapies aimed at achieving acute drug intoxication and drug withdrawal. Detoxification basically means to bring a decrease in the physical possessions caused by addictive materials. It is not easy to recover from drug obsession. It is a tough long road often accompanied by lots of uncertain blocks. An individual incapable of giving up an obsession to drugs by himself will be promoted to undertake different steps to undergo detoxification process and get released from this curse.

The primary aim of drug detoxification is to eradicate the toxins gathered in the body, which settle after using drugs. This is attained through a system of detoxification. If the toxins are not properly detached and any drug scum remains, it will produce addictive long-term desire to take drug again. If any psychological and physical symptoms or body reactions are shown to be produced from the bad action of any by-product of the drug, which works like a dependent one, it is called drug withdrawal.

There are different symptoms which indicate drug withdrawal such as shaking, sweating, headaches, cravings, nausea, abdominal cramping, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, insomnia, agitation, anxiety, depression or other habitual changes. The types and brutality of withdrawal symptoms differs significantly depending on the nature of drug or for how long drugs are being used. The regularity of drug use also has great effect on withdrawal signs. Now a day's people do not normally use only one drug instead a mixture of drugs is used. May it be alcohol and recommended drugs/alcohol combined with cocaine, crystal meth, and heroin or sometimes crack cocaine.

These courses do not cover all aspects of drug addiction, such as psychological aspects of addiction, physical factors, social factors and compound behavioral matters that are amalgamated with addiction.

Several kinds of drugs like methadone, heroin and prescription medicines need a period of remedial drug detoxification. There are several types of self induced, psychosomatic dependence linked with these dangerous materials, and a stage of medicinal stabilization is usually recommended. The main steps of drug detoxification are evaluation stage, stabilization stage and guiding the patient into treatment.

Drug detoxification is a longer process. However, for some drugs, it might be fast and for others, it might be slow. It's highly significant that patient should undergo such process immediately, if he shows symptoms or critical toxic responses. Mainly, complete removal of drug ingredients is possible but proper care must be taken to avoid any side reactions.

HI, I am Vicky John. I am student of medical. I am also a medical intern. Writing is my favorite hobby. So, I am here to show my skills of writing. I also work as a freelance writer. I can write on any topic or niche. If you want me to write for you, you can contact me at or

Few Natural Remedies for Sinus Infections

A recent study found that nearly 1/6th of the population of the world suffer from one or the other type of sinusitis commonly called sinus infections. A sinus is infection or sinusitis is actually the inflammation of the sinuses. What are sinuses? The hollow cavities in the portion just below your eye sockets and little upper to your nostrils are called sinuses. You might have observed skulls where there is a hollow cavity between the nose and eye sockets - that portion when gets inflamed due to congestion, viral infection, bacterial infection or increase of mass of flesh of the wall of the nostril it causes great trouble.

Such an infection or happening causes the blockage of air passage and assimilation of mucus inside the hollow cavity. Sinusitis causes lot of pain, irritation, itching eyes, itching nostrils, discomfort in breathing, and headache. Sinus can be acute, chronic and recurring. Whatever may be your form of sinusitis it is curable. The rate of success of sinusitis cure has been 84%. That means if some people don't get relief from the medication or surgery that is done in severe cases of sinusitis they give up. However one should keep on trying something different to find out the real cure. Have you tries natural remedies for sinus infections? Here we shall discuss some natural remedies that you can try to treat the problem of sinusitis.

Steam Inhalation: It is a very common method applied by people where they inhale the steam of hot water. But have you tried inhaling the steam of clove flavor or mint flavor. Instead of menthol that many people use for the soothing effect try clove or mint leave treatment inhalation. They are natural decongestion items and soothe your mind as well.

Essential Oils: Essential oils made of different herbs and natural ingredients have been in use since ages for different treatments. The essential oils can be used to inhale its vapors or can be used directly to treat sinusitis. Oils like Oregano oil have anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties that can decongest the sinus from bacterial infection and mucus.

Salt Water Rinse: Salt has many curable properties especially for cold and sinusitis. The salt water actually acts like a disinfectant and it can prevent sinus infection if you rinse your sinus daily with warm salt water. The rinsing of sinuses with salt water will take some practice but once you become apt in that you will never suffer from sinus infection. One of the best sinus remedies tried and tested by millions!

The author is a writer of ailments and natural sinus remedies. For more methods of natural remedies that you want for sinus infections visit the site

Statins and Muscle Pain

Statins and muscle pain unfortunately go hand in hand. Another reason why you should lower cholesterol without statins. Statin side effects involve abnormal changes to the way your cells make energy. This is called mitochondrial dysfunction. It leads to a muscle wasting disease called Rhabdomylosis which can be fatal in some cases.

It can also lead to Alzheimer's disease, stroke, cancer, statin memory loss, and a number of other serious medical problems. Do I have your attention now? Want to know why you should lower cholesterol naturally?

Lets look at what statins*actually do and then the connection between statins and muscle pain will become more clear.

Statins coq10
Statins deplete a vital nutrient that your cells need to make energy properly called coq10. When the mitochondria in your cells (the energy producing part) do not get enough coq10, they can't carry out the chemical reactions needed to make ATP, which is the primary fuel your body runs on.

The muscle pain comes from the inability of the muscles to make energy due to depleted coq10 and other vital nutrients that are diminished by the use of statins. Beyond the statins coq10 problem, there are other nutrients that statins deplete in your body:

    Carnitine - a B-vitamin
    Selenium - a mineral

Statins and muscle pain - only part of the problem
There are other problems that statin drugs cause that range from discomfort up to life threatening.

Among these statin side effects are:

    Kidney failure
    Statin memory loss
    Erectile dysfunction
    Nerve damage
    Liver damage
    Congestive heart failure

How can a drug that is supposed to protect people from heart attacks cause so many other problems? The answer is*that statin drugs interfere with the body's production of cholesterol. The body makes cholesterol for a reason. It is a vital component of critical chemical bio-synthesis in the body and brain. This is why you should lower cholesterol naturally, and not with drugs.

Statins are prescribed to lower cholesterol, in the mistaken belief that simply lowering cholesterol provides a significant health benefit to your body. It does not work that way. Heart disease is caused by inflammation in your arteries, and focusing on cholesterol alone does not work.

It ignores other important factors that contribute to heart disease, and does not address them, while promoting dangerous drugs that prevent your body from making energy properly.

The relationship between statins and muscle pain should tell you there is something seriously wrong with these medications, if they cause pain and cramping in your muscles and prevent your body from functioning normally. Statin side effects posed much too serious a risk to your health. Lower cholesterol without statins. You will be much better off!

Worried about your cholesterol level? Want to prevent heart disease? Then click on the link to my new blog Lower Cholesterol Naturally Now, and learn how to lower your cholesterol levels naturally, without dangerous statin drugs!

Human Dental Structure and the Wisdom Teeth Removal

One often narrates stories of the wisdom tooth to young children. People associate it with adulthood and intelligence. However, the dentist has another opinion! The dentist will commonly suggest that you remove the tooth. Meanwhile, you are left to wonder why you must do it. Hence, it is time to understand the human dental structures so that we can understand the process and need for the wisdom teeth removal.

The wisdom tooth is present for one main reason. The main function is to help the person to eat and chew the food. For this purpose, the human teeth are of different shapes and structures and they do specific roles. The structures include the incisors, the canines, the premolars, the molars, and the third molars. The incisors are the teeth in the front of the jaws. They help in biting. The canines form a sharp arrangement which aids tearing of food. The premolars help for grinding, while the molars support the same process. They grow about a year after the premolars appear in the mouth. The last types of teeth that grow are known as the third molars. These are responsible for crowding in the mouth. Due to this reason, the wisdom teeth removal becomes mandatory as it is a type of third molar structure.

However, healthcare experts have different schools of thought about this procedure. Some believe that a structure which is well placed and intact does not need removal because it is harmless. While, others believe that these growths can cause dental difficulties in the future.

It is a known fact that these teeth may become useful to the person, but at the same time, it is also possible that they develop in an inappropriate place causing other problems. For instance, the person may face trouble in biting of food. Moreover, the bones in the mouth get affected. Due to the unnatural positioning and disruption of the set pattern of arrangement of teeth, slight decay is possible along with bone problems.

Nevertheless, if your teeth have grown in a proper way and it is possible for you to keep up your dental hygiene, then, you may not need to get them removed.

The most peculiar aspect about third molars is that they can grow in any fashion! Sometimes, the jaw is not large enough to support their eruption. Sometimes, they may begin to appear in the far end of the mouth. So, they may not have enough space to grow properly and may end up growing in a horizontal direction. This is abnormal and hence, wisdom teeth removal becomes inevitable.

Youngsters and young adults are often asked to undergo an extraction as they can recover more easily from surgery and future problems can also be avoided this way.

Wisdom teeth are the last molar teeth to develop which usually grow at the very back of the upper and lower jaw bones, one at each back 'corner' of the mouth. Find out about Wisdom teeth removal and other Healthcare Experts [] from our website.

Head and Neck Cancer

Head and neck cancers refer to a group of biologically similar cancers, which originate in the upper aerodigestive tract. This tract includes the lip, oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, and larynx. A large majority of cancers that begin in the head and neck area have the potential to spread to other parts of the body, which is why they must be treated as soon as possible. Such cancers usually spread through the lymph system or through the blood stream. If detected early, head and neck cancers are highly curable. However, in most cases, ENT specialists usually advise a treatment plan consisting of surgery, in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Head And Neck Dissection

A dissection is a surgical procedure through which a cancer may be removed. There are basically two types of neck dissection: a radial neck dissection and a partial neck dissection.

• A radial neck dissection: The main aim of this surgical procedure is to remove all the lymph nodes in the neck, between the collarbone and the jaw. It is usually advised if tests have shown the presence of one or more cancer-affected lymph nodes in the neck. As the lymph nodes are often stuck to various neck structures, this surgery may also involve the removal of other tissues, to make sure that all cancer nodes are completely cleared.

• Partial neck dissection: This procedure is usually advised when the ENT surgeon suspects the presence of microscopic amounts of cancer cells, within the lymph nodes in the neck. It involves the removal of only those groups of nodes, which are expected to get affected by the type of cancer diagnosed in the patient.

This surgery is performed under general anaesthesia, which means that the patient will be asleep for the entire duration of the procedure. In most cases, the surgeon will make two long incisions in the neck to remove the nodes. Most patients do not feel much discomfort after the surgery. As the surgeon may generally remove one of the large muscles in the neck during the surgery, most patients would notice that their neck seems flatter than before, and is also stiff.

The skin on the neck will also feel a bit numb after the surgery. Though over time, this numbness may reduce to some extent, the patient should not expect their skin to return to normal. Other complications of head and neck dissection are blood clots, leak of tissue fluid, nerve injuries, stiff shoulders and inability to swallow food properly.

In general, patients will require at least two to*three weeks off from their normal duties, which will vary according to the type of treatment advised by the ENT surgeon.

The patient will be given full information about head and neck surgery, including benefits, risks and complications, to help them make a decision on whether to undergo the surgery or not. They may change their decision regarding proceeding with the surgery at any time prior to the procedure, even if they have previously signed a consent form.

Our Nose Surgery doctors are specialist in Otology, Sinofacial pain, Voice disorders, Facial plastics, Head and neck surgery, abstructive Sleep Apnoea, Rhinoplasty, Nose Surgery.

For more info visit:

Heroin - Why It's Here, and Where It Stands

Although Heroin is a highly addictive opiate narcotic, it is an extremely effective painkiller and anxiolytic. In fact, in the United Kingdom, it is used the same way in which we physicians in the United States use Morphine.

That's right. In the UK, Heroin is manufactured and prescribed as the drug, Dimorphine. We U.S. physicians feel this is unnecessary, and potentially risky, as Dimorphine is quickly metabolized by the liver into Morphine, the socalled, "ultimate warm blanket" of the opiate world.

It seems, however, that the side effects to Heroin make it an "electric warm blanket" when talking about it with IV Heroin users. Having interviewed many former intravenous Heroin users, they consistently inform me that they feel the euphoria from Heroin is much more intense than Morphine. Interestingly, because of this more intense effect, many have started thinking outside the box regarding this medication's ability to treat the hospice patient.

Certainly, Europe is leaning in this direction concerning palliative therapy in terminally ill patients with malignant pain. Germany, Switzerland, Denmark and the Netherlands have legalized its use in this regard, and currently Norway and other European Union nations are considering a move in this direction.

It seems that of the first world nations, the Union of Europe always leads with the Caduceus first. In a humanitarian effort to make a more dignified and comfortable place for the dying patient, one should not be surprised that Europe made the first move, moreover, Germany, the worlds engineering guru, would be the first nation to endorse it in this way. It is very interesting that Germany advances this particular type of therapy. As you may have guessed, Heroin is a German Invdntion.

Historically, Heroin had an interesting birth. After Dr. Bayer of Bayer Laboratories (a German company to this day) isolated acetylsalicylic acid from willow bark, he was able to move forward with other work. Aspirin, the very first in an important class of medications now known as Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, is what he isolated from willow bark. After this great discovery, his now wealthy laboratory went to work isolating isomers of the central nervous system's mu receptor agonists we call opiate compounds.

What Bayer Labs isolated was diacetylmorphine. You guessed it, Heroin. The company went to work immediately, packaged the drug in liquid form, and began selling it over the counter in the United States as a non-addictive cough medicine patented with the brand name, Heroin, meaning "hero within." That's right. Heroin is a registered trademark of Bayer Laboratories. Go figure.

This marketing campaign went on from 1895 to 1910. Then, reports from the U.S. began to mount from a concerned American public, undermining Bayer's marketing efforts, warning of the morphine metabolite and addiction.

You must remember that at that time, most Americans were already aware of the severe problem with morphine and its evil hold, as we were taking care of hundreds of thousands of Civil War Veterans wounded in combat who had become addicted to it.

Bayer capitulated with embarrassment and removed the product from the marketplace.

Of interest, is that the U.S. Congress would install the Harrison Narcotics and Tax Act, making Heroin illegal, 4 years later. By 1924, it was a felony to even possess the drug, and has been ever since.

Chances are, Americans in general, will never accept this drug for any therapy, no matter what argument is laid on the table. Americans, the first industrialized people to have dealt with this dragon on a gigantic scale, at war with cartels who push it through our southern borders, and dealing with a monster which runs wild in our streets to this day, will probably never accept or tolerate its presence in our pharmacopeia.

Dr. Counce

Founded by Dr. Charles Counce, The Venture 17 Conservatory is a collegiate education consulting firm and private teaching resource based in the mountains of Lake George, Colorado. The Conservatory is the flagship of The Venture 17 Division of Education, a nonprofit collegiate consulting firm and professorate specializing in higher academics in the medical arts and sciences. The Venture 17 Conservatory began as an educational institution and online teaching tool to aid local college students in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Over the last two years, however, The Conservatory web site has grown rapidly and now reaches a large contingent of college students across America as well as World Wide. The Conservatory now has a vast number of supporters and users in Europe, including Germany, The Netherlands, Austria, Russia, France, Sweden, and The Ukraine. The Conservatory's large fan base of supporters in Japan, China, India, and other Asian Countries continues to grow exponentially. Teaching at the college level, The Doctor is a professor of Human Anatomy and Physiology, as well as Cardiopulmonary Medicine, Molecular Biology, Clinical Chemistry, and Hematology. In addition, he teaches American History.

Dr. Counce's blog, "The Searchlight Messenger", can be seen and commented on at

Sugar Alcohol Vs Sugar

Erythritol is classified as a sugar alcohol and is a naturally-derived sugar substitute that looks and tastes very much like sugar. The key point is that it has almost no calories and doesn't count as a carbohydrate or a sugar.

Erythritol is my favorite sugar alcohol. Why? Unlike another sugar alcohol, Xylitol, Erythritol is completely absorbed in the stomach and upper intestines and is immediately excreted by the body in the urine. However other common sugar alcohol sweeteners like Sorbitol and Xylitol have some digestive issues.

Xylitol is another sugar alcohol passes through the entire gastrointestinal system, not cleared immediately by the kidneys and that is why Xylitol is associated with abdominal cramping and diarrhea. Xylitol has essentially no calories like Erythritol and really shouldn't be added to your carbohydrate or sugar consumption as calories.

Sorbitol is also a sugar alcohol whose absorption in the human body is slow, and this allows part of the ingested sorbitol to reach the large intestine where metabolism yields fewer calories. Therefore, unlike sugar which contributes four calories per gram, the caloric contribution of sorbitol is about 2.6 calories per gram.


Steviais in the sunflower family native totropical regions in South America.. It is known as sweet leaf, sugarleaf or just Stevia. As a sweetener Stevia's taste has a slow onset but last longer than that of sugar, although some of its extracts may have a bitter aftertaste.

The steviol glycoside extracts are 300 times sweeter than sugar. Stevia undoubtedly has an important role in the low-carbohydrate lifestyles as a low-sugar sweetener. A very important part of Stevia's metabolism in our body is that it has a negligible effect on blood glucose, and therefore won't cause insulin spikes so common with a carbohydrate rich (low-fat) diets. I find Stevia and therefore Truvia with Erythritol very helpful as a natural sweetener in patients who require a carbohydrate-controlled diet, and strongly recommend it.

Truvia® is a combination of Erythritol and a purified Steviol glycoside called Rebaudioside(Rebiana).The carbohydrate in Truvia® natural sweetener comes from erythritol - a natural sugar alcohol that is also found in grapes and pears - that also has zero calories. Erythritol passes through the body without being broken down for calories. As a result, it has no effect on blood sugar. Erythritol is used in Truvia® natural sweetener to evenly disperse rebiana to achieve uniform sweetness, similar to how dextrose and other ingredients are used by other high intensity sweeteners like Splenda® to evenly disperse the sweetener.

Of all the substances we consume that are damaging, sugar is the most harmful as it ignites inflammation and inflammation causes heart disease. We can see the result of excessive sugar in diabetes, obesity and cancer as well. Having seen the ravages of damaged hearts for 15 years as a heart surgeon, my goal today is helping patients prevent disease. A huge step in prevention is overcoming sugar addiction. To learn how you can easily end sugar addiction visit

History of the ECG Machine

The modern day ECG machine is a breakthrough in the field of medical science. This machine is used daily throughout the world saving lives. Modern hospitals simply could not function with out them. The ECG machine that we see today has evolved over the years from a very basic device that was used to measure electricity. This device was known as Galvanometer which was developed in the year 1749.

Ten years later, in the year 1849, Dubois-Raymond enhanced the existing measuring device to measure the current. This device was known as Rheotome.
In 1868, Raymond's student, Julius Bernstein modified the rheotome, so that the simulation and sampling could be varied. This was called as the differential Rheotome. This was the first kind of ECG machine of that time. It was experimented on frog hearts, by measuring their heartbeat using two electrodes. This was the birth of the Electro Cardiograph Machine as we know it today.

Due to lack of sensitivity which lead to the further advancement in the design and Capillary electrometer was developed by Gabriel Lippmann in 1872.

Augustus De'sire waller was the first one to discover that the capillary electrometer can measure the electrical activity of the human heart without opening the chest. The firs electrical activity of the human heart was recorded in 1887. It was initially called as cardiogram and later Einthoven named it as Electrocardiogram.

Einthoven began to work his work on ECG in 1900.The first improvement in the capillary electrometer was the invention of string galvanometer in 1903. The first ECG machine introduced in the US was the string electrocardiograph that was developed by Cohn in 1909.

The first machine in the US was designed by Horatio Williams and built in 1914 by Charles Hindle. On May 20, 1915, the machine traced the electrical activity of the human heart for the first time. The next improvement was done on the electrodes. The size of the ECG was greatly reduced. In 1920, the strap on electrode was introduced by Cohn.. In 1932, Rudolph Burger introduced the suction electrode, which was later modified by Welsh as the suction cup that is currently in use with 12 lead machines.

The GE Corporation developed the vacuum tubes for amplification. The next CRT was introduced into electrocardiography. The introduction of the amplifier type electrocardiographs helped in improvement in recording the electrical activity of the heart.

As you can see, the ECG machine has come a long way from its early days measuring the stress of frogs!

matt @ ECG Machines

Types of Stethoscopes

The stethoscope was invented in France in the year 1816. A stethoscope can be used to hear internal sounds from a human's body. It is also used to count blood pressure in patient's body & is a valuable tool in listening to the resonance inside veins.

Characteristically, the stethoscope has become a symbol of doctor's profession. The Stethoscope is the integral part of doctor's profession & helpful in diagnosing a patient's health status. It is the one tool that all doctors (and some nurses) carry with them at all times. This piece of equipment is such a big part of the doctors life that many times they will have them engraved to increase their sentimental value.

A stethoscope can be differentiated or characterized on the basis of ergonomics, clarity and loudness of the sound coming out from human body. Apart from the common one we see there are specialized ones used every day, including:

Acoustic: Acoustic stethoscope is generally used for listening to sounds coming out from the chest. It contains a chest piece and hollow tube. The only limitation with acoustic stethoscope is that they cannot work with reduced sounds. A quiet environment is necessary to get accurate readings.

Electronic: This kind of stethoscope can give ultimate output especially with low sound waves. This stethoscope amplifies the sound waves and gives indicators. This type of stethoscope is used mostly for taking faint readings.

Recording: Few stethoscopes hold the feature of recording the sound waves. These kinds of stethoscopes can be connected with any type of recorder and can trap the output for later use and analysis.

Noise Reduction Stethoscopes: This kind of stethoscope is the same as electronic ones only they come with noise cancelling or background noise reduction.

Fetal Stethoscopes: This fetal stethoscope is being used for pregnant women. It features an enlarged end, which is placed over the abdomen of the pregnant lady. A common name for this stethoscope is fetoscope. However, in current world, with advancement of technology, fetal stethoscopes are being replaced by sonaid, which is more advanced and electronic.

Stethoscope is one of the most important pieces of medical equipment used in the healthcare industry. While advancements in the medical field are increasing dramatically, the stethoscope has largely remained unchanged for over 150 years. This is one piece of equipment that has seen little change from the increase of technology in the medical field. Many doctors prefer just your standard stethoscope vs. some of the newer models with more electronic features. Over time more will be forced to use an electronic stethoscope as more practices are starting to use an EMR (electronic medical records) system.

Lee Joseph is a Medical Equipment Expert.  You can purchase a stethoscope by visiting You will find a large selection of Stethoscopes for any budget.

Types of Ophthalmoscopes

The ophthalmoscope was invented In 1847 by Charles Babbage. Over time, it underwent several modifications and advancements by the industry. The latest version of Ophthalmoscope is highly efficient and user friendly. For any health care professional working with vision, it is a necessity.

The ophthalmoscope is a medical device used for looking inside the eye of the patient. This process is called Ophthalmoscopy. The ophthalmoscope is also called as funduscope. Using this equipment a health care professional can examine vitreous humor and the retina. For any eye examination, the ophthalmoscope is an important device for the diagnosis of the eye related diseases and conditions.

There are two major categories where ophthalmoscopes can be classified.

Direct ophthalmoscope: It is a flashlight-sized instrument, containing several lenses. The direct ophthalmoscope can amplify the image around 15 times original size. A normal direct ophthalmoscope gives a field of view of approximately 6 to 10 degrees and magnification feature of about 15 times. This type of ophthalmoscope is most generally used for regular checkups.

A common process for examination includes having the patient open both eyes & cover up one eye with a wand. Slow movement towards patient, with gradually reducing the power of the lens is required while testing. First focus should be on the lens and then the eye. While performing ophthalmoscopy, it is recommended not to put hands over patient's head or shoulder as this may affect the accuracy of the exam.

Indirect ophthalmoscope: This medical device contains a light on one end and a small lens. A standard indirect ophthalmoscope gives 30 degrees of field of view and 5 times magnification. The output is wider, and gives clear idea of inside structure of eye. With a clear image the indirect ophthalmoscope captures the correct status of the eye and helps the healthcare professional is assessing the overall condition of the eye. Viewing the retina in concert with the rest of the eye, a professional can assess a myriad of conditions. The indirect ophthalmoscope can be in either monocular or binocular in nature. Using this type of indirect ophthalmoscope, four types of ophthalmoscopy can be done:

    Slit lamp indirect ophthalmoscopy
    Head mounted binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy
    Monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy
    Modified (monocular) indirect ophthalmoscopy

There are many ophthalmoscopes present in market containing helpful features. The consolidated set of features of a good ophthalmoscope should include the following:

    It should be workable with undiluted and small pupils.
    View of fundus should be panoramic, wider and clear.
    On standard, magnification should increase by 25 degrees approximately.
    It should provide an appropriate field of view

Lee Joseph is a Medical Equipment Expert.  You can purchase an economical ophthalmoscope by visiting the website  They have a large selection of medical equipment to fit any budget.